Obesity (Overweight)

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Obesity (Overweight) is a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity isn't just a cosmetic concern. It increases your risk of diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.Being extremely obese means you are especially likely to have health problems related to your weight.Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight. Prescription medications and weight-loss surgery are additional options for treating obesity.

Depending on the area of fat deposition, there are three forms of obesity:

    • Peripheral – accumulation of excess fat in the hips, buttocks and thighs
    • Central – accumulation of excess fat in the abdominal area
    • Combination – both peripheral and central

Depending on the association with other diseases there are two types

    • Type-1 obesity– not caused by any disease; due to excessive intake of calories and lack of physical activity
    • Type-2 obesity– caused by a disease (like Cushing syndrome, hypothyroidism & polycystic ovarian disease, are some internal secretion diseases

Depending on the size and number of fat cells, obesity can be divided into:

  • Adult-type – in this type, only size of fat cells increased
  • Child-type – in this type, the number of fat cells increased

Although there are genetic, behavioral and hormonal influences on body weight. Obesity can sometimes be traced to a medical cause, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, and other diseases and conditions. However, these disorders are rare and, in general, the main causes of obesity are:

  • Genetic influences
  • Physiological influences
  • Food intake and eating disorders
  • Lifestyle (weight history, pregnancy, drugs)
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Sleep apnea (a condition in which breathing is irregular and periodically stops during sleep
  • Shortness of breath
  • Varicose veins
  • Skin problems
  • Gallstones
  • Osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints, especially the knees
  • High Blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Cancer, including cancer of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovaries, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and prostate
  • High triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
  • Metabolic syndrome: a combination of high blood sugar, high blood pressure, high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol
  • Stroke
  • Breathing disorders, including sleep apnea, a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Gynecological problems, such as infertility and irregular periods
  • Erectile dysfunction and sexual health issues
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition in which fat builds up in the liver and can cause inflammation or scarring
  • Osteoarthritis

Preventive Measures

    • Healthy, balanced diet
    • Regular physical activity
    • Monitor BMI regularly

Diagnosis of obesity is relatively straight-forward using Body Mass Index, however obesity creates a series of health risks (e.g., diabetes, heart disease) which need to continuously monitored:

    • Calculating Body Mass Index
    • Monitoring health history
    • A general physical exam
    • Measuring waist circumference
    • Checking other health problems
    • Diagnostic blood tests
    • Lipid profile
    • Liver function tests
    • Blood glucose
    • Thyroid function test


    • Consuming fewer calories
    • Increasing activity and exercise
    • Prescription diet pills
    • A modified diet
    • Regular exercise
    • Other non-prescription diet pills
    • Behavior changes

    Test Code: BHT029

    Pre Test Information:
    No specific preconditions required

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  • Blood Sugar (F, PP)

    Test Code: BH066G

    Pre Test Information:
    Fasting & 2 hrs after lunch

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    Test Code: BHC069

    Pre Test Information:
    Age and Gender required

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