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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Test


Overview

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) also known as Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) encompasses all degrees of gradual loss of kidney function, from damaged–at risk through mild, moderate, and severe chronic kidney failure.

CKD is caused due to large number of systemic diseases (other organs of the body) that damage the kidney or from disorders that are intrinsic to the kidney itself

Scientifically speaking, a clinically significant CKD is defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) persistently below 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2

Glomerulus is the basic filtration unit of kidney and enables kidney to filter out wastes and excess fluids from blood, which are then excreted through urine; and in CKD dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes build up in the body

Different stages of CKD are classified as:

Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR (>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

Stage 2: Mild reduction in GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

Stage 3a: Moderate reduction in GFR (45-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

Stage 3b: Moderate reduction in GFR (30-44 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

Stage 4: Severe reduction in GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

Stage 5: Kidney failure (GFR)

CKD is more prevalent in the elderly population; however, younger patients with CKD typically experience progressive loss of kidney function

Chronic kidney disease occurs when a disease or condition impairs kidney function, causing kidney damage to worsen over several months or years

  • Diabetes (type 1 or type 2)
  • High blood pressure
  • Narrowed or blocked renal artery
  • Kidney diseases and infections like polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis
  • Long-term use of medicines that can damage the kidneys like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones and some cancers
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (a condition that causes urine to back up into your kidneys)

Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time as and when the kidney damage progresses slowly:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Sleep problems
  • Changes in urination
  • Decreased mental sharpness
  • Muscle twitches and cramps
  • Swelling in feet and ankles
  • Persistent itching
  • Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart
  • Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) that's difficult to control

Factors that increases risk of chronic kidney disease includes:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease
  • Obesity
  • Being African-American, Native American or Asian-American
  • Family history of kidney disease
  • Abnormal kidney structure
  • Older age

Chronic kidney disease can affect almost every part of your body. Potential complications may include:

  • Pulmonary edema (fluid retention, which leads to swelling in arms and legs, high blood pressure, or fluid in lungs)
  • Hyperkalemia (a sudden rise in potassium levels of blood, which can impair your heart's function)
  • Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease
  • Weak bones and an increased risk of bone fractures
  • Anemia
  • Decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction or reduced fertility
  • Damage to central nervous system
  • Decreased immune response
  • Pericarditis (an inflammation of the saclike membrane that envelops heart (pericardium))
  • Pregnancy complications that carry risks for the mother and the developing fetus
  • Irreversible damage to kidneys (end-stage kidney disease), eventually requiring either dialysis or a kidney transplant for survival
  • Blood tests (creatinine, urea, GFR)
  • Urine test (albumin)
  • Ultrasound
  • Kidney biopsy

To reduce risk of developing kidney disease:

  • Avoid taking too many pain relievers that can lead to kidney damage
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Manage your existing medical conditions
  • Quit smoking

Factors that increases risk of chronic kidney disease includes:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease
  • Obesity
  • Being African-American, Native American or Asian-American
  • Family history of kidney disease
  • Abnormal kidney structure
  • Older age

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

i.What are the major signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease?+
ii.Having frequent urination? Check if something is wrong with your kidneys?+
iii.What are the test to diagnose chronic Kidney disease?+
iv.What is GFR? What is normal GFR level?+

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